In the early twentieth century fashion at Ukrainian lands developed in the context of European trends, which vividly discussed on the pages of Kiev and Lviv, Kharkiv and Odessa newspapers and magazines. But the name “Ukraine” used only to the territory when : Eastern Ukraine was a part of Russia and Westen – a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The events of First World War changed the map of Ukraine and brought Ukrainians a lot of trouble.
The First World War lasted from 1914 till 1918. But in Ukraine fights and riots delayed longer and brought numerous casualties, significant political changes and economic losses. Ukraine became the center of territorial violations by the warring parties: Russia, Austria-Hungary, Poland and Germany – all wanted to grab a piece of our land.
Already in 1914 hostilities took place in Galicia. They launched an offensive Russian army, which occupied Lviv, Chernivtsi, Przemysl and other cities. In 1915 the German counteroffensive and Austro-Hungarian troops pushed Russia, but in early 1916, Russia won again.
1917, due to the Bolshevist revolution in St. Petersburg, Kyiv Central Council proclaimed the establishment of the Ukrainian People’s Republic on the territories, where Ukrainians constitute the majority.
The newspaper “New Council” then published an article “Who is with them”, where the author wrote about the Bolsheviks: “They destroyed churches – historical monuments. Shed the blood of their brethren. Shot in innocent. They beat, abused and tortured prisoners, raped women. Arrested and beat children. Keep people in prisons, nowhere involved, broke freedom of speech, plundered people’s property, unleashed thieves and robbers. Old Kyiv and glorious scene made wild pitch battlefield and, worst of all, – that might cry again on gun streets of Kyiv, and then what will be the heart of Ukraine is scary to thought… “.
1918 in Galicia adopted the manifesto of independence and the creation of Western Ukrainian People’s Republic in Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia (although the real power has not been extended or the entire eastern Galicia or in Transcarpathia). But very soon the Polish troops took Lviv. In late 1918, the Romanian troops entered Chernivets, and in early 1919 Uzhgorod was conquered by Czechoslovak army.
In Kiev, during thirty-six months, from March 1917 to June 1920, the government has changed fourteen times. Some of the former Kyiv coups were practically bloodless, but others cost the lives of many innocent peoples.
The most significant event of this period was the announcement of the Universal of Ukraine’s unity. But in the end, the Bolsheviks occupied Kyiv. They nationalized private enterprises, including small handicraft shops. Life was under the jurisdiction of the Soviet institutions. Economic, and indeed no prosperity to no avail. Part of the population, unmet new regime, emigrated and Ukraine has lost many prominent scientists, artists, and entrepreneurs. Those, who resigned ahead, waited seven decades of Soviet rule, for which fashion was the old bourgeois relic.
But even that time, despite the terrible events and circumstanses, people had to dress and woman want to look beautiful. Dresses made from curtains, mattress covers, altered dresses from grandmother’s chest, facelift things.
In “Life of Mikhail Bulgakov” T.Lappa recalls: “I went in my single black dress with crepe de chine and panne: altered my former, last year’s coats and skirt.”
Forced dull, “dirty” colors, crumpled textures and bagful silhouettes were in vogue then. Any trim or decoration has perceived like a “bourgeois burp” and was condemned.
At the same time in post-war Europe gaining momentum “Golden Twenties” – roared jazz, women cuts their hair, shorted skirts, embroidered their dresses with beads and danced, danced, danced …
Myroslav Melnyk )
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